Climate
Climate

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in October 2015

Air temperature

Last October was memorable with the abnormally cold weather in the European part of Russia. A record cold was registered in Ryazan, Lipetsk, Tambov, Belgorod, Kursk, Smolensk, in the Volga region and the Stavropol Territory. During any decade, and in general for the month, the average monthly air temperature was below the norm (in the Perm region - approximately  by 2ºC). In European Russia so cool October is no longer an uncommon thing. At about the same cold it was in the previous year. Over 15 years of 21 century, 3 Octobers were among the ten coldest in the past 125 years of weather observations.

Warm weather prevailed most part of the month beyond the Urals. In the first decade in the Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Altai Territory, the Altai Mountains and the Republic of Tuva new temperature maximums were recorded. The same thing happened in the north of Yakutia and Chukotka.  In the south of Siberia, the Trans-Baikal Territory and along the Arctic coast of Russia the October temperature norm was considerably exceeded. In Chukotka, Taimyr and Arctic islands - by 4-6ºC. However, on some days severe frosts occurred in the Polar Urals and the lower reaches of the Ob River. Thermometer drops below -20ºC, in Yakutia below -30ºC.

 

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in September 2015

Air temperature

Extremely warm weather was maintained in European Russia in the second half of September. Numerous daily maximum temperature have been recorded from Novaya Zemlya to the North Caucasus. The thermometer repeatedly rose above +30°C, which was a rare event even during the last summer in European Russia. Average air temperature in the third decade of the month exceeded the norm by 4-9°C, while on a monthly basis - by 3-5°C. Nature vividly reacted to such a warm weather. In the south, there were flowers on apple and the lilacs bloomed for the second time in a year. In Crimea, last September was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations. In the Russian north, the south of Russia and in the Volga region, it was the third warmest one. Such heat was not seen over the last 20 years; the records belong to the mid-30s of the last century. On the last day of the month freeze reached the Black Earth region. At night, there were recorded temperatures from -1°C to -3°C.

 

It was abnormally warm in the Russian sector of the Arctic. In northern Evenki and Yakutia, as well as on the Arctic islands the daily maximum temperature was exceeded and monthly mean values have surpassed the norm by 2-3°C or more.

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in August 2015

Air temperature

 

For the largest part of the month cold weather dominated over the Russian North. From Arkhangelsk to Taimyr, every decade of the month was colder than the norm. During the last one, the cold intensified and expanded far to the south, and covered the southern regions of the European part of Russia and Volga Region. For the last time, new records of the temperature minimums were registered not only in the north, but also near with Lower Volga, the Urals and Central region. At night the thermometer fell below 0°C, in some places there were recorded the values for -2 ... -8°C. As a result of the cold - negative anomalies of mean monthly temperatures were mentioned in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Komi Republic, on the Upper Volga and the Urals.

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in July 2015

Air temperature

In July 2015 mean air temperature in the Northern Hemisphere has reached the absolute maximum in the history of regular meteorological observations in the world since 1891. This year is the fifth month with a record high average monthly air temperature. Previous record holders - February, March, May and June.

 

It was considerably hotter than usual last month in Europe and North Africa, the Middle East, Central Asia and southern Siberia, in the north of the Russian Far East and Alaska, in the east of the Canadian Arctic and northern Pacific coast of the United States. In contrast, abnormal cold seized the central and northern regions of European Russia and the Urals, a significant part of Canada and the United States, northern and tropical waters of the Atlantic Ocean, the western part of the temperate latitudes of the Pacific Ocean and the Horn of Africa.

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in June 2015

Air temperature

June was abnormally warm in most parts of the Russian Federation. Only on Sakhalin Island, in the north of Primorye and the south of Kamchatka, partly in Kaliningrad, Pskov, Arkhangelsk Region and the Republic of Karelia mean monthly air temperature was a little lower than normal. In the rest of the country, it has exceeded the norm. In the Urals, western Siberia and the Lower Volga - by 4-6ºC. New temperature maxima during the month were many times recorded throughout the territory. On certain days in the Republic of Kalmykia, the Astrakhan Region and the eastern areas of the Volgograd and Saratov Regions the thermometer rose to the level of +40ºC and above. Also there was frost during the month, sometimes it comes up to new daily temperature minima. Thus, in the first decade of the month frosts happened in the north of the European territory, in Bashkiria, in the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, the Irkutsk region and the Trans-Baikal region, in the second decade - in the central region of Russia, and in the third decade - again on Sakhalin and in Trans-Baikal. Still the warm weather in June significantly prevailed over the cold the mean month temperature received the second rank among the highest values for this indicator yielded only by June 2012; the first half of the year was the warmest in the history of regular meteorological observations in the country.

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The key weather and climate features of May 2015 in the Northern Hemisphere

Air temperature In May, as in any other month of spring this year, the main anomaly of heat in Russia has concentrated in the European north and the Urals. The unseasonable warm was mentioned there for the entire month. The maximum temperature was recorded on the Arctic islands, in the Komi Republic, the Nenets and Yamal-Nenets Autonomous District. Mean month air temperature exceeded the norm by 4-7°C. In the Urals Federal District was the warmest May in history and in the Northwest this May was the second warmest.

Heat records were registered in other parts of Russia, for example, in the Irkutsk region in the first and in the center of the country (the Middle Volga and Chukotka) in the third decade of the month. Everywhere except the above areas, the anomalies did not exceed an average of + 1 ... 2°C. In the Far East May was even colder than normal. In the last case, there were records of minimum daily temperature to be mentioned. Frosts up to -5 ... -7°C were observed not only in the east, but also in Central Russia, Crimea and North Caucasus. In the first twenty days of the month the weather in the European territory was colder than usual. Mean decade temperature anomalies reached -2 ... -3°C.

All this has led to the fact that in Russia May 2015 is not among the warmest, but it can not be said about the whole spring. It was the fifth warmest spring in the history of regular meteorological observations, though it inferior to the record warm spring of last year for about 1 °C. So as in the spring of the last year, this time large positive temperature anomalies (up to + 6°C) had formed in the north of the European territory, in the Urals and Siberia. Everywhere in the country, spring again was warmer than normal, but this time anomalies were less than the anomalies of the last year, especially in the European territory.

 

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