Climate
Climate

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in January 2016

Air temperature

European territory of Russia was experienced with the real winter weather in the first decade of the new year. In the central and north-western regions frosts reached -25°C and below (in the Khibiny - up to -40°C). As a result, the mean decade negative temperature anomalies covered the entire territory from the western border to the Urals, reaching -10°C or lower values. In the second half of the month the weather has changed dramatically and become more like a spring (temperature anomalies for the third decade amounted to + 5°C or more). As a result, on average for January over most of European Russia have developed temperature conditions close to normal and only in the northwest it still was colder than usual for about 2-3°C.

Another cold center in the territory of Russia was located in the south of Siberia, where on average it turned out colder than normal by 2-6°C. Finally, the third is Kamchatka, where during the whole month it was colder than normal, but much less than in Siberia - by 2-4°C.

 

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in December 2015

Air temperature

December 2015 proved to be a very warm one in Russia. In the whole European territory, Siberia and Altai almost every day were established record values of daily maximum air temperature. In the first decade of the month the average temperature in the south of Siberia exceeded the norm by 12-16°C, not far below the anomaly have been here in the second decade and only the third - the cold air from the eastern regions of the country came over. In Central Russia in December the thermometer rose to near 10°C of heat. Only in the east, the whole month was colder than usual. Eastern regions of Yakutia, Kolyma, Chukotka and Kamchatka experienced the frost of 50°C. As a result, in general, over the last month the average temperature in the south of Siberia were higher than the norm by 8-10°C, on European territory by 4-6°C. At the same time, in the northeast of the country they fell short of standardd by about  1-2°C. In the Volga region it was the warmest December in history, and in Central Russia - the second warmest. The distribution and size of the anomalies of mean temperature for December in the territory of Russia are very similar with the December two years ago. The only difference is that in the place of the current cold weather in the northeast of the country in December 2013 there, so as in Siberia, were large positive anomalies in temperature (+ 10°C). Therefore, December 2013 is the warmest in the annals of Russia, while December 2015 only rounded out the top five warmest.

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2015

Air temperature

In November, the average temperature in Russia was close to normal. However, it changes during the month were uneven. So if in the European territory on each decade the average temperature was above normal, after a large positive anomalies of the first decade in the Urals and Siberia (up to +5 ... + 7°C), in the second decade a strong cold snap occurred (anomalies to -4 ... -10°C), while in the third - here again it was warm (anomaly up to + 4 ... + 8°C), with the exception of Trans-Baikal, which still held the abnormal cold. In the Far East, the heat of the first decade gave way to the cold in second and third. Especially in the Kamchatka and Chukotka, where the average decade temperature was below the norm by 4-6°C. Strong warming took place in the European territory of Russia in the last week of the month. In the Black Earth, the Middle Volga and the Lower Volga were recorded daily maximum temperatures. In the south, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Rostov Region the thermometer rose to summer values of +20 ... 25°C. At the same time, in Yakutia, Irkutsk Region and Trans-Baikal frosts reached -45°C, which is typical for the middle of winter, but not fall. During all month, the weather was very warm in the Russian North and the Arctic islands. As a result, the average temperature in November in the Russian sector of the Arctic exceeded the norm by 4-12°C. In the fight against heat and cold in the Southern Urals and southern Siberia and Kamchatka the cold won. Here, the average temperature for the month was less than the norm by 1-3°C.

 

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in October 2015

Air temperature

Last October was memorable with the abnormally cold weather in the European part of Russia. A record cold was registered in Ryazan, Lipetsk, Tambov, Belgorod, Kursk, Smolensk, in the Volga region and the Stavropol Territory. During any decade, and in general for the month, the average monthly air temperature was below the norm (in the Perm region - approximately  by 2ºC). In European Russia so cool October is no longer an uncommon thing. At about the same cold it was in the previous year. Over 15 years of 21 century, 3 Octobers were among the ten coldest in the past 125 years of weather observations.

Warm weather prevailed most part of the month beyond the Urals. In the first decade in the Irkutsk, Kemerovo, Novosibirsk, Altai Territory, the Altai Mountains and the Republic of Tuva new temperature maximums were recorded. The same thing happened in the north of Yakutia and Chukotka.  In the south of Siberia, the Trans-Baikal Territory and along the Arctic coast of Russia the October temperature norm was considerably exceeded. In Chukotka, Taimyr and Arctic islands - by 4-6ºC. However, on some days severe frosts occurred in the Polar Urals and the lower reaches of the Ob River. Thermometer drops below -20ºC, in Yakutia below -30ºC.

 

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in September 2015

Air temperature

Extremely warm weather was maintained in European Russia in the second half of September. Numerous daily maximum temperature have been recorded from Novaya Zemlya to the North Caucasus. The thermometer repeatedly rose above +30°C, which was a rare event even during the last summer in European Russia. Average air temperature in the third decade of the month exceeded the norm by 4-9°C, while on a monthly basis - by 3-5°C. Nature vividly reacted to such a warm weather. In the south, there were flowers on apple and the lilacs bloomed for the second time in a year. In Crimea, last September was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations. In the Russian north, the south of Russia and in the Volga region, it was the third warmest one. Such heat was not seen over the last 20 years; the records belong to the mid-30s of the last century. On the last day of the month freeze reached the Black Earth region. At night, there were recorded temperatures from -1°C to -3°C.

 

It was abnormally warm in the Russian sector of the Arctic. In northern Evenki and Yakutia, as well as on the Arctic islands the daily maximum temperature was exceeded and monthly mean values have surpassed the norm by 2-3°C or more.

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The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in August 2015

Air temperature

 

For the largest part of the month cold weather dominated over the Russian North. From Arkhangelsk to Taimyr, every decade of the month was colder than the norm. During the last one, the cold intensified and expanded far to the south, and covered the southern regions of the European part of Russia and Volga Region. For the last time, new records of the temperature minimums were registered not only in the north, but also near with Lower Volga, the Urals and Central region. At night the thermometer fell below 0°C, in some places there were recorded the values for -2 ... -8°C. As a result of the cold - negative anomalies of mean monthly temperatures were mentioned in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Komi Republic, on the Upper Volga and the Urals.

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