The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in February 2017
  Climate The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in February 2017

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in February 2017

Air temperature.

At the beginning of February in the central and southern areas of the ETR it was chilly, in some places cold weather, which came here in the end of January. Air temperature anomalies in the first decade reached -3.5°. Only in Russian North it was abnormally warm. In the middle of the month this warm sector extended and captured the most part of the Central region and Volga area, casted away the abnormal cold far to the south, to Crimea and North Caucasus, where the temperature anomalies took place (to -3°) in the second decade of the month. In the third decade the early spring warmth came almost to the all territory of ETR. Temperature anomalies reached +6…+8°. In Central Russia, Volga area, in the west of the country and in the North Caucasus the new temperature maximums were recorded. Only in the north the temperature at that moment corresponded to the norm or was relatively higher. If in the beginning and middle of the month in the Russian North temperatures reached the maximum values, in 20th the frosts came here up to -40°.



In the Urals the cold weather of the first half of the month (anomalies to -3…-4° in the first and second decades) was changed by the abnormal warmth in the third decade (anomalies more than +10°). In Siberia in the first and third decades of the month it was much warmer the norm (anomalies to +10…+12°), in the middle of the month – warmth in the north opposed to the cold in the south. In Far East of Russia the first decade was extremely warm (anomalies to +10…+12°), but then the warmth kept only in the south, the cold weather came to the north with the decade anomalies to -3…-4°.
Such exchange of the cold and warmth brought to the situation when in the several Russian regions and in Russia in general, the average month air temperature nowhere reached the extreme values. Only in the south of Far East the average monthly temperature of February became the third maximum value on the record, i.e. since 1891. In the Arctic islands of Barents and Kara seas, in Siberia and Far East it exceeded the norm by 4-8°, in the considerable part of European territory and Urals it was close to the norm.
The very warm weather was in China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan. Everywhere the average monthly air temperature was higher the norm. In the central and northern China provinces it was warmer by 4° and more, and only in south of the country it approximately corresponded to the norm.
In the South-East countries the air temperature was close to the norm, also in the most part of India. Only in the north of the country and in neighbouring Pakistan regions the norm was exceeded approximately by 2-3°.
In the most part of Central Asia the average monthly air temperature in general corresponded to the norm. Only in some areas of Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Kirgizia it exceeded the norm by 2-3°.
In Middle East February was cold. Almost everywhere the average monthly air temperature was below the norm. In the Transcaucasia republics, in the north of Iran and in the east of Turkey it was especially noticeable. Here the temperature was below the norm by 2-4°.
The cold expanded to the north-east of Africa. In Egypt it was colder by 1-2°. On the other territory of this continent in the Northern Hemisphere the average monthly air temperature was above the norm. In Algeria, north of Morocco and sub-Sahara countries it was more by 1-2°.
In the first decade of the month in the majority of European countries the winter had the power. In Scandinavian countries cold reached -30° and more. In the Central Europe the air temperature even during the day oscillated near 0°, in the south of the continent the air was warmed only to +5…+10°. But in the second half of the month the warmth came with the Atlantic lows. In the same Scandinavian countries temperature raised up to +10° and higher, and in the other territory it reached +15° and more. And, as a result, the warmth defeated the cold. In the most part of the continent the month became warmer the norm by 2-3°.
The early spring came to the North American continent, especially to USA. The spring plants and flowers woke up earlier by 2-3 weeks. The February average monthly air temperature in almost entire territory exceeded the norm by 2-7° and more. In Chicago and Kansas the average monthly air temperature anomaly is +7.0°, Dallas − +6.9°, Oklahoma − +5.5°, Washington − +5.2°, New York − +5.0°. As a result, the last February became the second warmest month on the record in USA and succeeded to the temperature record of 60 years remoteness. The average monthly air temperatures in the east and south states of the country reached absolute maximums or were close to them. And only two states were different: far Alaska and  Washington, which is situated on the Pacific coast. Here the average monthly air temperatures were close to the norm and even colder, in some places by 2°.
Also in general, the average monthly air temperature in Canada is higher the norm, but not such considerable as in USA. In the central provinces of the country and in the north – by 2-5°, but along the ocean coasts in was normal and colder. The warmer than normal it was in Mexico and in the majority of the Central American countries.
As before, in Arctic is the abnormally warm, in average by 4°. The last February in Arctic is the third warmest on the record.
The February 2017 is the second warmest on the record in the Northern Hemisphere. Its temperature is considerably lower than in the record February last year.
In Moscow the average monthly air temperature is -4.6°, anomaly - +3.2°.
In Russia the winter average air temperature 2016-2017 is far from the extreme values. Its predecessors, winters 2014-2015 and 2015-2016 were considerably warmer (more than 1°). But the last winter cannot be named as cold one. Even in XXI century in the global warming environment there were the winters much colder than present one, for instance, in 2011-2012 and 2013-2014. The average air temperature of last winter did not reach the extreme values even in one federal districts of Russia.
As it was suggested, the winter air temperatures were much higher the norm in Arctic. The norm were exceeded by 7-11° in the islands of Barents and Kara seas, in Chukotka – by 5-6°. Also, the temperature in the south of Siberia and Far East was considerably higher (by 3-5°). In Ural, South and North-Caucasus Federal Districts the last winter was colder the norm, although insignificantly – by 0.5-1.0°.
In general the winter of 2016-2017 in Northern Hemisphere was very warm. Its average air temperature has the second rank among the highest values, succeeding only to winter 2015-2016. The last winter is the warmest on the Chinese record. The close to the maximum became the air temperature in Arctic and USA. This winter became colder the norm in Middle East, south-east of Europe and north-west of USA.

Ocean surface temperature.

The sea surface average temperature anomalies in Atlantic and Pacific oceans of the Northern Hemisphere in February 2017 remained at the last month level, i.e. near +0.5°.
In equatorial latitudes of Pacific ocean the cold episode of Southern oscillation – La Niña came to the end. Although the negative anomalies take place, but they are less by 0.5° in absolute value, i.e. in comparison to the last month they decreased by 0.1-0.2°. Abnormally cold water in Pacific ocean is observing in middle latitudes, among all strip from Asia till North America. Temperature of other area of the ocean is close to norm, or slightly higher.
In the northern part of Indian ocean it is cold water.
Atlantic ocean sea surface temperature is slightly higher the norm. More obvious it is in North Atlantic current and in Greenland sea. In Canary current the SST is colder than usual.
In Arctic basin SST is higher the norm by 1° and more.


In ETR the warm February weather was followed by heavy precipitations. In all federal districts, except North-Caucasian, there are areas with the precipitations much more than the norm. Foremost, it regards Volga Federal District, where in Udmurtia republic and Perm area the precipitation norms exceeded in 2 times,  in Mari-El, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan, Samara and Orenburg areas – in 1.5 times and more. In North-West Federal district it was in Komi republic and Kaliningrad region, in Central Federal district – Kostroma and Ryazan regions, in South Federal district – in Kalmyk republic, Astrakhan, Rostov regions and Krasnodar area. In the last case there were the heaviest snowfalls, after which the depth snow grew in the mountainous areas by 10 cm and more.
In Urals the norms were also exceeded. In West Siberia the same situation took place in the south of Novosibirsk, Omsk, Tomsk regions. At the same time in Khakassia, Irkutsk region and Transbaikalia there were a few precipitations. In Far East the surplus of precipitation was in Khabarovsk and Kamchatka areas, also in Jewish Autonomous Region, and its deficiency was in Primorye, Chukchi area and in the north of Japan.
A lot of precipitations had north, central and especially north-west areas of China. Besides, if in the north there were heavy snowfalls, in other areas – heavy rains. In some places the precipitation norms were exceeded in 2-3 times. In the east and south of China, as well as in neighbouring Korea and in the most part of Japan there were a few precipitations.
Mainly the precipitation norm is in Indo-China countries. It was exceeded only in some areas of Vietnam and Cambodia.
Dry weather was in India and Pakistan, where in considerable area it was absolutely dry.
In the north-east of Afghanistan and in the south of Tajikistan the snow storms and avalanches destroyed a lot of houses with human losses. Here the precipitation norms were exceeded in 2-3 times. A lot of precipitations were in the East Kazakhstan, at the same time in the west of country and in the neighbouring Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan it was a few one.
It was precipitations above the norm in the east of Iran and below norm – in the west. In the Middle East the precipitations were seldom, as well as in the most part of North Africa. Only in countries of Guinea gulf (Cote D’Ivouire, Ghana) the rains fell.
In the east of Europe in Poland, west of Ukraine, in Romania the precipitations monthly sums exceeded the norms, in the north and west of the continent in Scandinavia countries, in UK, in the west of France, Benelux countries and in north-west of Germany they formed the norm and more, in the central Europe it was a few precipitations. The heavy rains were in the north of Italy. In Venetia, one day 90mm of precipitations have fallen. In Spanish mountains the snowfalls were observed. Heavy snowfalls were in UK. In Scotland it was up to 30 cm of snow. It was more snow in the capital of Iceland – Reykjavik, in the last day of the month 50 cm of snow have fallen in the city. Only once it was more snow, in January of 1937.
In Canada the precipitations were in the norm, except territories situated along Pacific and Atlantic coasts. In some placed the norm were exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times. At the beginning of the month the snow buried Britain Columbia province. Here, and also in neighbouring provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan it was 50 cm of snow on the several days.
North and west states of USA had the above the norm precipitations. Along the Pacific shore the norm was exceeded in 2-3 times. At the same time in the east and south it was a few precipitations. At the end of the third decade the heavy snow was in the north-east states. In New York the snow drifts were buried on one night up to 30 cm. In the city the storm warning was declared.
In Moscow the precipitation monthly sum was 36 mm. It is norm.

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