The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in January 2017
  Climate The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in January 2017

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in January 2017

Air temperature

One can say about Russia’s first month of the year, that “it goes hot and cold”. Actually, except Arctic islands and south areas of Far East, it is no one large region when average decade temperature anomalies would keep a sign. In Russian North, Urals and Upper Volga the frosts in the first month decade reached -40…-50° and more, anomalies of this period were -6…-13°. But in the second decade the warmth came here and although the anomalies were the same by value, but they had the opposite sign. In the south of Russia the abnormal warmth of the first decade, with the new temperature maximums in Crimea and Krasnodar region, changed by the frosts to -20…-25° in Krasnodar region and -10° in Sochi area. The new temperature minimums were registered at that time and seldom for these places phenomena  - brash ice and fast shore ice in Kerch strait and at the Crimea and Caucasus shore.


The same situation is in Siberia. The colds of the first half of the month (frosts up to -50° and lower and decade average temperature anomalies up to -8…-10°) changed with the abnormal warmth (temperature anomalies of the third decade +4…+14°). At the beginning of the month the record warmth dominated in Chukchi area. At the height of the winter the first month decade temperature oscillated near 0° (first decade average temperature – to +14°), at the third decade the frosts exceeded -50° (third decade anomalies – to -10°). And only in the Arctic islands of Russia the abnormal warmth was kept all month and new temperature maximums were registered.
Exchange of the warmth and cold has resulted in the average month temperature close to the norm in the most Russian territory: Central, South, Volga, Ural Federal Districts and Transbaikalia. In general the abnormal warm weather was in the Arctic islands (month anomalies +14°), in the Russian North and along the Arctic cost (anomalies +2…+4), in Yakutia and south of Far East (anomalies +2…+6). In January it was much colder than usual in Kolyma and Kamchatka (anomalies -4°).
In the east of Asia (China, Korea, Japan) a monthly average abnormally positive temperature was noted, although not high, as a rule, near +1°. In the east China provinces the monthly average air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-3°. Sometimes the new temperature maximums were registered, for instance, in Tokyo.
Approximately the same anomalies (+1…+2°) take place in Indochina.
In India the monthly average temperature is close to norm. Slightly warmer than usual it was in the south of the country and colder in the central part and in the north, in Kashmir. In the last case it was not such cold January for the several decades.
The warm weather was in the most part of the Central Asia. Here the monthly average temperature was higher the norm by 2-4°.  In Bukhara anomaly was +3.5°, Almaty +3.1°, Bishkek +2.1°).
In the most part of the Middle East the air temperature is slightly higher the norm (in Tehran anomaly +2.3°, Medina +3.0°). At the same time in the Mediterranean countries the month became colder than usual.
The severest frost in foreign countries came to Europe, particularly to its south-east part. In Bulgaria for the first time in the last 60 years the Black sea coast freezed, it was only three times in XX century and in XXI century occurred for the first time. The temperature dropped down to -30°. Bulgarian meteorologists noted, that such frosts have not taken place for more than 100 years. Bulgarian neighbour – Greece – registered 20-degrees colds. Severe frosts and large negative temperature anomalies captured all Europe, except northern region (UK, Scandinavia and Baltic). Dozens of people became the victims of colds. The information on the new temperature minimums came from everywhere. The Roma fountains freezed, Danube was covered with ice. In the most part of the continent the monthly average temperature was lower the norm. In Zurich and Lion anomalies were -2.3°, Innsbruck, Prague, Budapest and Thessaloniki -3.4°, Sofia -4.4°.
The Europe cold penetrated to North Africa. In Algeria, Tunisia and Egypt the monthly average temperature was below the norm by 1-3°.
For Canada the last month was extremely warm. It is the third in the range row among the warmest ones since 1891. Only last year January and January of 1981 were warmer than this one. The monthly average temperature was above the norm in the all country territory: in Toronto by 5.3°, Montreal – 6.0°, Quebec – 5.1°, Eureka – 2.4°.
The southern Canadian neighbour – USA – also has got the warmth above the norm. In the most part of the country the monthly average anomalies - +2…+6° (in New Orleans the anomaly +5.0°, New York +4.5°, Chicago +4.4°, Kansas +3.5°). And only in the west and especially north-west of the country (Washington and Oregon states) the Arctic cold came. Here the month is colder the norm.
As before, the Arctic remains abnormally warm. However, along with the overheated air in Barents and Kara seas, the negative temperature anomalies took place in Alaska and north-east of Russia.
A monthly average temperature in Northern Hemisphere was above the norm. Its temperature has the 2-3 rank among the highest values.
The monthly average temperature in Moscow was -7.8°, anomaly was +1.4.


Ocean surface temperature

The average sea surface temperatures of Atlantic and Pacific oceans in the Northern Hemisphere in January 2017, were the same as in the previous month, i.e. 0.5°.
In equatorial waters of Pacific ocean, as before, the abnormally cold water is observing. The negative anomalies values and their squares are gradually decreasing and now their absolute value does not exceed 0.6-0.7°.
Also, as before, the abnormally cold water is observing in the moderate latitudes of both oceans and abnormally warm one – in the warm flows, situated on the east of the continents (Gulfstream – North America) and (Kuroshio – Asia). One should define Mexican gulf, east cost of Asia (South-China, East-China, Yellow and Japan seas) and bordering areas between Atlantic and Arctic oceans (Norwegian, Greenland and Barents seas) to the areas with the abnormally warm water.

Precipitation

In the ETR because of frequent change of weather the dry and wet periods alternately replaced each other. As a result, in most republics and regions, except south ones, the atmospheric monthly precipitation quantity is close to norm. Sometimes, as in the third decade in Russian North, the fresh air made the meter snowdrifts, the snow depth rose by decades of centimetres, at the same time in Central Russia and Volga area the snow depth became deeper by several millimetres.
In South Federal District only half of the monthly precipitation norm dropped. It does not apply to Crimea, where it was the norm and slightly more. In the end of the month here the third of the monthly norm dropped, the traffic on the south Crimea roads was paralysed. After Crimea the snow appeared on the Sochi beaches.
The snow norm was in Urals: slightly more in south and less in the north. In Siberia was the precipitation norm. Only in Evenkia, Hakassia and around Baikal there were low precipitations.
In Far East a lot of precipitations were in Sakhalin and coastal areas of Khabarovsk region, in some places in 2-3 times above the norm. In Chukchi area the precipitations were seldom, their monthly sums have set only half of the norm. In the other Far East territory the precipitation norm was observed.
In the east and south-west of China the precipitation norms were exceeded in 1.5-2.5 times, in the other territory it was a few precipitation.
The rains inundated South-East Asia. In Thailand they caused floods which were the severest over the last 30 years. As a result, the bridges were destroyed, airport were closed, road and railroad traffic was blocked. Dozens of people died, hundreds of thousands people have been affected. Specialists assessed the financial damage as $3 billion. Rains inundated not only Thailand, but also Malaysia, Indonesia and Philippines. It was 100 mm of precipitation over the day. Monthly norms were exceeded in 2-4 times.
In the most part of India the precipitation is normal and less than normal. Only Kashmir became the victim of the severest snowfalls, which caused a numerous avalanches. They completely blocked the roads to the mountainous part of the country. Dozens of people found themselves under the avalanches. The precipitation norm here was exceeded in 2-4 times.
Not far from these places, in Tajikistan the snow, the sleet snow and rains in valleys also caused a lot of precipitations. There were up to 50 mm over the day. But in general the monthly precipitations in Central Asia were close to the norm.
Generally, the dry weather was in the Middle East, although there were rains and snow in the mountains. Intensive snowfalls took place in the south slope of the Caucasian mountain range. In the east of Georgia is was more than 20mm of precipitation, most of it as snow and sleet snow, under the great amount of which the high voltage power lines opens occurred. The snow also was in the Georgian capital Tbilisi.
In the most part of Africa it was a dry weather. Only in Mediterranean cost of Algeria and Morocco in was raining. There were up to 20-70 mm of precipitation and their monthly sums exceeded the norm in 1.5-2.0 times. Approximately the same situation was in the Guinea gulf cost of the Cote d’Ivoire.
It was dry weather in Europe. Only in Bulgaria and in the north of Greece the severe precipitation as snow and rains were observed. In Sofia the snow depth reached 50 cm. The road traffic was paralysed, the city was covered with the snowdrifts. In Thessaloniki it was raining two days and they brought 40 mm of precipitation. Severe rains were also in the north of Italy, in north of France (Normandy) the snow storm brought 10 mm of precipitation over the day.
USA were inundated in January by the rains and snow. In many states their monthly norms were substantially exceeded. At the beginning of the month the record quantity of snow and rains were in the west of the country. The floods occurred. California, being suffered from the droughts and forest fires over the years, met the rain showers. As a result, the floods occurred, which were the severest over the last 10 years. The snow storm fairly mauled the Oregon state. It was 20 cm of snow over the day. The same situation was in the neighbouring state of Idaho. In Sierra-Nevada mountains the snow depth exceeded 3 meters. In the middle of the month the sleet rain and severe snow captured the central states, at the end of the month the new rains and rare for these places snow came to California. According to news, the level of moisture in soil of the South California reached the norm first time over the last five years. A lot of snow at that moment was in the north-east of the USA. In Pennsylvania and New England it was 70 mm of precipitation over the two days.
A dry weather was in Mexico.
In the most part of Canada the precipitations were in the norm or relatively less, only in the north the norm was exceeded.
In Moscow the monthly sum of precipitations has set 44mm. It is close to the norm.

 
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