The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2016
  Climate The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2016

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2016

Air temperature

Abnormal cold, which came to the European territory of Russia (ETR) in the middle of October, was kept here in November, and became even stronger. Only southern ETR had the warm weather as in summer in the first decade of November. In Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories the new absolute thermal peaks for November have been registered. But later the cold came here, which affected almost all country territory from the western border to Sea of Okhotsk. In the second November decade the anomalies of the average-decade temperatures in the Urals and territories from the east of it reached -16…-18°. In the Russian North, where the abnormal warmth was in the middle of autumn, there were the biting 30-degrees frosts. In Komi Republic the new record of the air temperature low of November Europe was broken  - 36°. The new temperature lows were registered in Volga area, Urals, Siberia, Yakutia, Khabarovsk Territory and Sakhalin. The frost reached -40…-45°, this is not at all typical for the local Autumn but for December-January.

 

Only east part of the Arctic region was affected by the abnormal warm weather as before. Here the average decade temperature anomalies reached +10…+12°, in the Arctic islands – even more. In the third decade the frosts became lighter in the south of the Urals and Siberia, the air temperature became above the norm, and in some places the new highs were registered.

As a result, air temperature for the month in the major part of Russian territory became below the norm by 2-6°, only in the north of the Far East Federal District it is higher by 2-8°, in the Arctic islands – by 14°. In was the third coldest November in Primorye Territory on record, since 1891, and in the Urals such cold November was observed for the last time almost 30 years ago, in 1987. In Russia in general, November 2016 became the coldest in XXI century. However, in should be noted that the severe November colds in the Central Russia are not uncommon. In our century they have already been observing for the third time, in 2007 and 2014, except 2016.

It was cold in the north of China and Korea at the beginning of the month. The air temperature dropped below 0°. In several areas it became the lowest for the beginning of November on record. But then the warmth came, which one cannot name as a heat. The air temperature varied near the norm. As a result, the monthly average temperature conditions were close to normal in the most China territory and exceeded the norm by 2° only in several areas of the Qinghai and Guangzhou provinces, as well as in the Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang.

It was much warmer than usual in South-East Asia. The monthly average air temperature was above the norm by 1-2° everywhere. However, the Siberian cold penetrated here sometime. Once, in the middle of the month the Thai peasants observed in the morning the paddies covered with rime.

In India the air temperature was close to the normal. In the north and south of the country and in the neighbouring Pakistan it became relatively higher, but in the central Hindustan – lower the norm. In New Delhi the lows came close to the record-breaking values.

In the Central Asia the cold weather came from October to November. At the beginning of the month in Kazakhstan the daily temperature highs were recorded, but then the temperature lows in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan were also recorded. In the north of Kazakhstan the temperature dropped below -40°, in the centre - -30°, in the south of the country - -17°. Even in the south of Turkmenistan air temperature was -10°. Here it was colder than usual by 2-4°.

The cold extended also to the Middle East. There were light frosts in Syria and Saudi Arabia. In Transcaucasia and in the north of Iran monthly average air temperature is below the norm by 1-3°. Only Israel had a warm weather in this area. October 30-degrees heat exhausted but the air was warmer than usual and monthly air temperature is above the normal by 1-2°.

In some Northern Africa areas in November it was hot. In the north-east of Egypt the air temperature reached more than +30...+40°. Here the monthly air temperature norms were exceeded by 2-3°. Approximately the same situation was in the countries of Central Africa: Niger, Burkina Faso, south of Mali, Senegal. The air temperature in the other territory was close to norm.

The air temperature in the European Continent was normal also. In the west and south it was little higher the norm, in the east – lower. However, it did not mean that the air temperature change was smooth. During the month the penetrations of the cold air to East Europe took place, the air temperature was below the norm by 1.0-1.5°, and it was the warmth advection to the South Europe, the monthly average air temperature here was above the norm by the same value. At the last day of the month the Arctic air penetration to Europe was extremely strong. In Sicilia the air temperature went down to 0°, in Venice – to -3°, in Paris – to -4°, in Munich – to -10°. These colds here are quit untypical for this time of the year and more suitable for the winter weather.

The last November in Canada is unmatched on record, it is the warmest in the history, and in USA its monthly average air temperature iterated the record achievement of 1999 and 2001 with an accuracy of 0.1°. In both countries there are no territories with the monthly average air temperature below the norm. The anomalies of monthly average air temperature in the most part of Canada have set +4-6°, in polar areas - +8° and higher. In USA the anomalies have set +2…+6°.

As before, the Arctic keeps the warm weather. Once again, as in the previous months, November 2016 was he warmest on record. The average anomaly on the Arctic region exceeded +6°, and in the vast territory it is from +4° to +8°, at the Barents and Kara seas’ islands it reached +10…+14°.

Once again, as in October, the monthly average air temperature of November in the North Hemisphere has become beyond the top three maximum values since 1891, the monthly average air temperature of the first eleven months of the present year (January-November) with the accuracy of 0.1° coincides with the same value of 2015. Now December can determine, whether 2016 will be the warmest on record, or his predecessor will remain the record-holder.

The cold November drew all Autumn period to the negative anomalies side. The last Autumn is colder the norm in North-West, Central, South, North-Caucasian, Volga, Ural and in the south of Far East Federal Districts of Russia despite of fact that mid-season Autumn anomalies square is less than in November. Only in Siberia because of the warm weather in September and in the Arctic region during all season, Autumn 2016 is warmer the norm. In the north of Far East Federal District it is the second warm on record.

In the most part of the Northern Hemisphere, especially in Arctic and North America the Autumn can be considered as abnormally warm. In USA and Canada it is warmer the norm by 2-4°, in Arctic – by 4-8°. In Arctic, as one might expect, this Autumn air temperature has a highest rank among the warmest values, the same concerns to USA, and in Canada it is among the top three warmest ones.

In Moscow the monthly average air temperature in November was -2.7°, anomaly is -1.5°. In XXI century it is the coldest November in the Russian capital.

Ocean surface temperature.

In Pacific ocean the mean anomaly of the sea surface temperature (SST) is continuing to decrease. In comparison with November of the last year (with then strong El-Niño) it is less by 0.5°. The reason is believed to be two circumstances.
The first – is continuing evolution of the cold episode of the Southern Oscillation – La Niña. Now in the equatorial altitudes of Pacific ocean the negative SST anomalies are from 0.5° to 1.5°, which corresponds to weak La Niña. NOAA is predicting that this La Niña will remain weak at all period of its existence and exhausted at the end of the winter – beginning of the spring 2017.

The second – is very cold water in the central part of the ocean from Japan to the shore of North America. Here the negative SST anomalies in the vast territory exceeded 1°.

The abnormally warm water has been formed on the surface of South China sea, along the shore of North America, what is supposed to be the consequence of the very warm weather in USA this November, also in tropics between abnormal cold waters in the equatorial and mid-latitudes.

In Atlantic ocean the mean SST anomaly keeps the same level as in the previous months with the same anomalies’ distribution – abnormal warm water in the North-Atlantic flow to the west from Newfoundland and at the junction of Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and abnormally cold in the central part of the ocean between North America and Eurasia.
As before, the sea temperature in the Arctic basin is substantially higher the normal, in Greenland, Barents and Kara seas – by 2-3°.

Precipitation.

There were a lot of precipitations in the European part of Russia. In the first decade the monthly norm was completed in the Central region and Volga area. Heavy snowfalls produced up to 20-30 cm of snow. In some areas snow and sleets caused the power failures. Having a rest in the second decade, bad weather in the third decade again covered the Central Russia with snow. Snow depth grew by 10-15 cm. Totally during the month the perspiration norms were exceeded in 1.5 times and more.

Approximately the same situation was in the South Urals, in the Northern Urals the perspirations were low, as well as in the north of Siberia. The southern areas of Siberia are rich of snow. In Kemerovo the snowfall became the heaviest over the last 40 years. In the south of West Siberia (Novosibirsk) and Transbaikalia (Chita) the monthly precipitation norms were fulfilled during one decade.

It was few of the precipitation in most part of Far East Federal District – less than half of the norm. However, it does not apply to Primorye, Sakhalin and Kamchatka, where was the norm, and to the Arctic areas of Yakutia, where the norms were exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times. Snowfalls in the north of Yakutia became the heaviest over the 30 years. The snow depth reached 1.5 m, it caused big troubles for the hibernation.

A lot of precipitations were in the central and east provinces of China. There were the snowfalls together with rains. The heaviest snowfalls in Central China in the middle of the months caused the suffering of more than 100 thousand people. The snow destroyed the electric lines, farms, blocked the road traffic. In this area the monthly norms of precipitation were exceeded in 2-3 times. In the east of Asia the snowfalls became heavy and early. In Tokyo first time over the last 54 years the snow felt down so early – 23rd of November. Besides, the November snow did not melt, reaching the ground, but the first time on record since 1875 kept the snow cover. In the north of Hokkaido by the middle of the month the snow depth was 40 cm.

A lot of precipitation was in South-East Asia. Here they exceeded the norm in 1.5-2.0 times. In Central Vietnam during the day it was 110 mm of the rain. Heavy rains took place in Indonesia. During the day in Sumatra and Java rains poured out 8-9 buckets of water on the 1 square meter of the ground.

In India and in the most part of Middle East the precipitation was almost absent. However, the exceptions took place. In Saudi Arabia the heavy rains caused the mud flows, and some places of the desert were covered with snow. At the end of the month heavy rains were in Turkey. It was 50mm of the rain during one day. Snowfalls were in Armenian mountains, rains were in Iran. At the last day of the month it was heavily raining in the Eastern Mediterranean. In Lebanon, Israel, Syria 40 mm of precipitation was fallen.

A lot of precipitation was in Kazakhstan and Central Asia republics. Here in some places the norms were exceeded in 2-3 times. It was unprecedented snowfall in Almaty. During the day the city was covered with snow to 30 cm deep, and in the foothills – to 69 cm deep.

The most part of Africa was dry. The rains were only along the coast. The heaviest rains were in Morocco, where at the end of the month over the several days more than 100 mm of precipitation was fallen.

Profusion of rains and snow in mountains were in Europe. At the end of the month the snowfall affected Switzerland. It destroyed the electric lines, interrupted the railway communication. At the third decade of the month the rain showers trenched the south of the continent. In Italy, Spain, France, Portugal over the several days 150 mm of precipitation was fallen. The showers caused floods, destroying of the bridges and facilities. The authorities conducted the partial evacuation of the population. In Western Europe the monthly norms were exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times, in Ukraine – in 2-3 times. In Ukraine monthly precipitation norm were exceeded during one decade.

It was few of the precipitation in USA and Canada. The heavy rains took place in Mexico. In some areas over the several hours 200 mm of rain was fallen and monthly norms were exceeded in 2-3 times.

In Moscow over the month 92 mm precipitation was fallen, it is exceeded the norm in 1.5 times. So much precipitation nobody saw in the capital since 1977, this is fifth sum on record.
Hydrometcentre of Russia

 
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