The main specific climatic features in the Northern Hemisphere in September 2016
In September in the European part of Russia abnormally cold weather was predominant. The average decade values of temperature in some areas were 1.5 - 2.0ºC below the norm. And, as a result, September was colder than usually in the Central, Southern and Volga Federal Districts. The situation was quite different in the Urals and east of the Ural Mountains. Two first decades were there exceptionally warm. In Evenkiya and Turukhansk Territory, in Taimyr and in Chukotka, in the Kuzbass and in the Baikal Lakeside, on Sakhalin and in Kamchatka daily air temperatures reached extremes quite a number of times. The average decade temperatures exceeded the normal by 4 - 8ºC. Only in the third decade steady cold weather established in Yakutia and Kolyma. The mean air temperature was here 2 - 3ºC lower than norm during the third decade. Nevertheless, freezing did not spoil the general impression of warm weather in the east of the country. In Siberia the last September was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations in Russia, and in the Ural Mountains region in occupies the second place.
The records of warm weather were beat on the Arctic islands belonging to Russia and in the Kars and Barents seas, as well as in the Polar Urals. Just in this region of Russia the weather was the most abnormally warm. Here the mean monthly air temperatures exceeded the norm by 4 - 6ºC.
The Asian anomaly of warm weather in September was perceptibly greater than the cool in the European territory of Russia. As a result, last September became the warmest in the history of our country. Its temperature was 0.1º greater than the previous record set in September 2005.
The eastern warmth in September not only reached Siberia and the Russian Far East, but propagated to the whole Eastern Asia, that is, China, Korea, Japan and Mongolia. Even at the end of September it was warm like in summer there. In Tokyo the air temperature exceeded +30ºC. In the major part of the territories of these countries the mean monthly temperature anomalies exceeded +2ºC. In China the last September set the second record of warm September in the history of the country. It ranks below the record of September 2005 only.
Relatively cold weather established in India, where, in some regions, the mean monthly air temperatures were 1 - 2ºC below the norm.
Summer lasted in September in the Central Asia. In Bishkek the norm of the air temperature was exceeded by 3.5ºC, in Tashkent by 3.9ºC, in Ashkhabad by 3.4ºC, in Almaty by 4.0ºC.
Air temperature exceeded the norm also in the Middle East. In the major part of the territory of the Saudi Arabia and in Iran it was 2 - 4ºC greater than the norm.
In Europe weather in September was exceptionally warm. In Spain the air temperature increased up to +40ºC and higher (in Seville a new absolute monthly record is set: +44.8ºC), in the Balkan Mountains region, in Greece and in the Western Ukraine – up to +30ºC, in Italy, France, Portugal and some countries of the Central Europe – up to +25ºC and higher. Even in the northern part of the continent and in Scandinavia the thermometers showed temperatures very close to +20ºC. Numerous new maximums of air temperature were put on record. As a result, the mean monthly temperature beat the European record of September 2014 anew.
In the eastern parts of Canada and the USA it was significantly warmer than usually. Here the norm was exceeded by 2 - 4ºC. In Toronto the anomaly was + 4.6ºC, in Montreal + 3.8ºC, in New York + 3.2ºC, in Detroit + 3.0ºC. The same can be said about the polar territories of Canada. In some eastern states of the USA the mean air temperature in September reached the absolute maximum, or approached it very closely. In the western territories of these countries the anomalies were somewhat lower, but everywhere they were positive anomalies, except some small territories and the Canadian province British Columbia, and along the USA shore of the Pacific Ocean.
The Arctic remains the leader as to the record warming. The mean temperature in September in this region exceeds the norm almost by +4ºC. It is a new absolute maximum, which exceeds the previous maximum of September 2012 by a good 0.5ºC. As one is aware, the minimum area covered by ice, as a rule, is observed just in September. This year it reached the second record minimum. The area covered by ice was less only in September 2012.
Though in most of the continents the anomaly that did not exceed 2 - 4ºC, it was enough for the mean air temperature values, on the whole in the Northern Hemisphere, to copy almost exactly (to an accuracy of 0.1 º) the record set in September of the last year.
In Moscow the mean monthly air temperature was +11.4ºC, the anomaly was +0.4ºC.
The ocean surface temperature
In the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific in the Northern Hemisphere the mean anomaly of the ocean surface temperature (OST) remained at the level of the previous month, i.e. approximately 0.5ºC.
In equatorial latitudes of the Pacific Ocean the expansion of the territory with negative anomalies of OST are quite noticeable. What is more, their absolute value increases, and in some areas it exceeded 1ºC. In middle and northern latitudes significant positive anomalies formed – more than 2 - 3ºC.
In the Atlantic Ocean, significant positive anomalies took place in Davis and Denmark Straits and near the southern littoral of Greenland, as well as in the proximity of the eastern shores of the USA and Canada and in the Northern and Baltic Seas. Abnormally cold weather stays on (which lasts already quite long) in the central part of middle latitudes.
The Arctic basin remains extremely warm. In the Barents Sea, Kara Sea and Chukchi Sea the anomalies of OST exceeded 2 - 3ºC.
In the most part of the North-Western and Central Federal Districts precipitation was about the norm. The norm was not reached only in the regions located in the west and in the south of the following territories: Leningrad, Novgorod, Pskov, Kaliningrad and Orel regions, Lipetsk, Kursk and Belgorod regions. The rest of the European territory of Russia was inundated by rains. In the Volga region in many areas the monthly precipitation amount 2 times (and even more) exceeded the norm. The situation was identical in Krasnodar Territory and in Karachay-Cherkessia. In the mid-September in the south of the Krasnodar Territory the daily amount of precipitation once constituted more than 100 mm.
Precipitation was about the norm in the Ural Mountains, except Yamal, where its amount was rather little. And, the precipitation amount was, indeed, very insignificant in Siberia. As a rule, it was twice and more less than the normal, and in some regions there was no precipitation at all. Only in Taymyr and in Transbaikalia precipitation reached the norm or exceeded it. In the east of Yakutia and in the Magadan region at the end of the month strong snowfalls took place. The earth was covered by snow, and stable snow cover formed. On the whole precipitation in the Far East constituted approximately the norm. Only in Chukotka and on Sakhalin it was somewhat less than the norm.
Typhoons induced extremely much rain in eastern and western provinces of China and in Korea. As the Korean meteorological service declared, last September the rainfalls were the strongest since 1945. Floods induced by these typhoons caused damage to more than 600 thousand people. In two provinces of China – Fujian and Zhejiang precipitation 2- 4 times exceeded the norm.
The season of rainfalls continues in the Southeast Asia. In many regions precipitation 1.5 – 2.0 times exceeded the norm. And in the Central Vietnam a monsoon, in combination with a typhoon, induced precipitation 2.5 times more abundant than the norm. In the vicinity, in Indonesia, heavy rains fell on the islands Java and Sumatra. Often rains lasted steadily during a few days or even a week. Up to 60 – 80 mm of precipitation could fall daily. Floods that resulted from these rains led to considerable damage and human losses.
The summer monsoon still lasted in September in India. In some regions the precipitation norm was exceeded by a factor of 2.0 – 2.5. In Bihar state rivers that overflowed their banks inundated thousands of hectares of farmlands, destructed bridges and houses. Human losses were great, and ran into the hundreds.
In the northern regions of Kazakhstan precipitation was about the norm, in some regions – higher. At the same time, in the south of this republic and in other states of the Central Asia there was almost no precipitation. The same situation – in the most part of the Middle East, except some regions in Turkey, Northern Iran and Transcaucasia. In Baku at the end of the month a shower occurred that brought to the capital of Azerbaijan a monthly norm of precipitation.
In the Northern Africa, rains fell generally south of the Sahara; their amount constituted the precipitation normal or more. The rest of the sub-continent territory was dry, without any precipitation.
The Europe, being “under the umbrella” of the Azores high, got few precipitation in September. The monthly sums of precipitation in the most part of the continent scarcely reached the half-norm values. Only in Great Britain, in the northern part of Scandinavia and in the Balkan Mountains the precipitation amount was about the norm, and in Greece – more than the norm (in some regions 2 - 4 times more than the norm). At the beginning of the month heavy rains just inundated the north and the west of Greece. Rivers that overflowed their banks flooded a number of villages in Peloponnese, destroyed roads and bridges. There were also some cases of human losses.
In Canada, precipitation was abundant. In the central part of the country its sums were 1.5 – 2.5 times greater than the norm. Only in the east, in the provinces Newfoundland and Quebec, precipitation seems to be insignificant.
The weather was very dry in the western part of the USA. In many regions, there was no precipitation at all. The same can be said about the States adjacent to the Mexico Gulf (Louisiana and Mississippi), as well as about the northeast of the country. In the rest of the country territory, precipitation constituted the norm values or more. Especially abundant precipitation was in some States in Middle West (twofold value of the norm and more).
In Mexico, the monthly amount of precipitation proved to be about the norm value, and only in the northern part of the country it considerably exceeded it (the 1.5 – 2.0-fold value of the norm).
In Moscow, precipitation amounted to 58 mm, or 89% of its norm in September. During the period January – September the precipitation amount was already greater than its yearly norm.