The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in August 2016
During the August in most parts of the European territory of Russia and the Urals was abnormally warm weather, which could be called extremely hot. In the Urals and the in the southern Urals air warmed up to + 35°C and above. There, as well as in the Russian North, the Volga region and in the resorts of southern Russia, were massively established new daily highs temperatures. In Salekhard, located above the Arctic Circle, was beaten the absolute maximum temperature. Now it is + 25.6°C. In any of three decades, the average temperature in the European Russian and the Urals exceeded the norm by 4-8°C. Of course, the same anomalies preserved on average for the month. In the Northwest and Volga federal districts, last August was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations. At the end of the month, the north of the European Russian felt the first breath of autumn. In Karelia, Udmurtia, and the Kirov region were reported freezing to -3°C.
To the east of the Urals, temperature background during the month was close to normal and only in Yakutia significantly lagged behind it. On some days in the south of Siberia, around Lake Baikal and Yakutia have already observed temperatures drops to -5 ... -10°C.
In most parts of the Far East over the last month the average temperature was near to normal and only in the north (Kolyma, Chukotka, Kamchatka), it exceeded it by 2-3°C.
Abnormally hot weather in the west of Russia, relatively warm in the east and a few cool in Yakutia have led to the fact that August 2016 was the hottest in Russia since 1891. Its average temperature was higher than the previous record set in August 2007 by 0.1°C.
In East Asia (China, Mongolia, Korea, Japan) last August was abnormally hot. The temperature was maintained for a long time at + 30 ... + to 35°C. It was reported that tens of thousands of people in Korea and Japan were hospitalized because of illnesses due to the heat. In northern China, Korea and Japan, average monthly temperatures exceeded the norm by 2-3°C, and in Mongolia – by more than 4°C. At the end of the month in the north of China in Manchuria came arctic cold, and the thermometer fell to negative values. In China, previous August was the second warmest in the history of meteorological observations in the country. Its average temperature was for 0.1°C second after record levels in August 1919.
On the Indian subcontinent temperatures were close to normal. In India anomalies were generally low positive, and in Pakistan - slightly negative.
Temperatures were above normal in Central Asia. In the north and west of Kazakhstan, temperature on average per month exceeded the norm by 3-5°C, in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan - by 2-3°C.
In the Middle East, last August was oppressively hot. Average air temperatures were much above the norm. In Lebanon, Israel and Jordan by 2°C or more, in Turkey, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Georgia - by 3°C or more, in Saudi Arabia – by 4°C or more.
Average temperature was close to normal in most parts of North Africa. Only in some areas of Morocco and Algeria, it exceeded the norm by about 2°C.
The same words as a whole over the last month can be said about Europe. Although on some days, there was a very hot weather. In Spain, the thermometer rose above +40°C, in France, Germany, Austria, the Czech Republic - more than +35°C. However, on other days in Central Europe temperature fell to a record daily lows, to the north of the continent even came freeze.
It was very hot in Canada. The average temperature of the month in the whole country repeated the record set in August 1998. In many regions of the country, the average air temperature exceeded the norm by 2-4°C. In Montreal anomaly + 3.4°C, Toronto - + 4.7°C. Large positive anomalies were formed in the neighboring US state of Alaska (in Anchorage anomaly of + 2.0°C), and the eastern United States (in New York anomaly + 3.0°C). At the same time, to the west of 100°W air temperature on average per month was close to normal or even lower then it. For Alaska, this was the warmest August ever.
Warm in Arctic remained. There, the average temperature of the month was second in the ranked list after August 2007.
With the completion of August ended the summer of the Northern Hemisphere. It was the hottest August in regular meteorological observations in the history of the world, ie, since 1891. Thus, all the seasons of the year, since the winter 2014-15 and by summer 2016 were extremely warm. This has never been in the Earth's meteorological record. Major anomalies of mean air temperature formed in the high and middle latitudes of the hemisphere, in the Middle East and North Africa. Almost everywhere in the hemisphere, the average temperature during the summer exceeded the norm. Only in the central parts of the oceans, weather turned colder than usual.
In Russia last summer was the hottest in the history of regular meteorological observations, ie, since 1891. Average temperature in the country has exceeded the previous record set in 2010. On the European territory, in a large part of Western Siberia, and in the Baikal region and in the far northeast, mean temperature anomalies exceeded 2-6ºC. In the Russian North, the Urals, Kolyma, Chukotka the average temperature during the summer has reached its absolute maximum. Only partly in Yakutia and probably, in the central part of the Okhotsk Sea, it was below normal.
In Moscow, the average temperature in August + 19.5°C, anomaly of + 3.1°C. This 6th highest value in the ranked list. It is more than 2°C less hot then the hottest in the history August 2010. As well as all the summer in the whole in Moscow was colder than the hottest summer 2010 by almost 3°C.
In August, the territory of the Russian Federation in the amount of precipitation can be divided into well and even excessively moistened northern areas (roughly north of 55-60°N) and the arid south.
In the Northwest Federal District, fell near with the norm and more of precipitation. Up to two monthly norms of rain fell on the Republic of Karelia, Murmansk and Leningrad region. All records on the rain were beaten by St. Petersburg. Summer 2016 there was the rainiest in the history of meteorological observations. The situation was similar in the Central Federal District. There are also areas where the amount of rainfall for the month exceeded the norm by 2 or more times: Moscow, Ryazan, Tula, Kursk region and others. In the Urals and Siberia rain overweight observed in the Nenets, Taimyr and Evenki autonomous districts, i.e., in the northern regions of similar federal districts. Far Eastern Federal District got excessive abundance of precipitation. In Khabarovsk Region, Yakutia, Sakhalin and Kamchatka, precipitation sometimes exceeded the norm by 2-3 times. At the end of the month in the north of Khabarovsk Region, in the Magadan region, and Yakutia was snow. It formed a temporary snow cover height of more than 10cm.
To the south of the mentioned border, were a little of precipitation. In most parts of the Volga, Southern, Ural and Siberian Federal Districts precipitation for the month amounted to 30-60% of the norm. Very little rain was in the North Caucasian Federal District. Siberia, in addition to the northern territories, have received strong rains in the south and even in Tuva and Buryatia.
In China, the weather was mostly dry, only in the north and south of the country rains turned in accordance with the norm or slightly more.
In southeast Asia, rainfall corresponded to the norm.
In India, the monsoon was still hosted in the center, east and north of the country, slightly affecting the southern region. The rains caused flooding in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. However, particularly hard was hit Bihar. Neighboring Pakistan was also ruled by the monsoon. In August, it was very strong. The amount of precipitation exceeded the norm by 2 times.
In Central Asia and the Middle East the weather was a little rainy, but in many places it was not rain at all.
In North Africa, rainfall went mainly to countries located in the west of the continent. At the same time in the north of Morocco and Algeria, they exceeded the norm by 2-3 times. Earlier this month, heavy rains in Sudan caused the floods that have destroyed thousands of homes and claimed the lives of dozens of people.
In Western, Central and Southern Europe rains were not enough, as a rule, less than half the norm. Although from time to time the south of the continent was hit by rainstorms. Therefore, earlier this month Macedonia suffered from them. Norm of the rainfall was in the northern region of the continent - the Nordic and Baltic countries. There, for a month fell 1.5-2.0 times more than the norm of rains.
In the Western Hemisphere a lot of rain were in the central and southern regions of the United States and Canada, and Alaska. Precipitation there in the past month amounted the norm and more. Especially a lot of them went to Louisiana and its neighboring Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, and south Texas. August there was the second most "wet" in the history of meteorological observations. It exceeded the norm by 2-3 times and more. Heavy rains were in the northeast of Mexico.
In Moscow in the past month fell 167mm of rain. This is more than 2 times more than the norm, and this is a new absolute maximum for August. Also was set another record - the daily maximum precipitation in the capital. Now it is 88mm. Last summer was one of the most rainy - 352mm, it is 7th result ever recorded. In the beginning of September in Moscow has dropped 92% from the normal annual precipitation.
The temperature of the ocean surface
In the Pacific, despite the ongoing development of large positive anomalies in the temperate and high latitudes, in some places they were hotter than + 2°C, the average sea surface temperature anomaly has decreased in comparison with July by 0.2°C. In comparison with the August of the last year, i.e., when there has been El Niño - by 0.3°C. In equatorial latitudes continued strengthening of the neutral phase of the Southern Oscillation. Sometimes there a negative anomaly in absolute value reached and exceeded 1°C.
In the Atlantic, the average SST anomaly is approximately the same as in previous months, i.e., about half deg. The large positive SST anomalies observed along the entire coast of North America, as well as in high latitudes - around Greenland, the Greenland and Barents Seas. There anomalies reached + 2 ... + 3°C.
In the central parts of both the Pacific and Atlantic oceans was anomalously cold water.
Hydrometcentre of Russia