The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in June 2016
In the European part of Russia, especially in the north, the beginning of summer was more like a prolonged spring. The air temperature in the first week was by 2-3°С below the norm. In the Russian North, since 25-degree heat in May, came freeze and record values of minimum air temperature, only at polar stations still were recorded extremely high temperatures. In the second half of the month, the heat returned to the European Russia, in the third decade anomalies exceeded + ... 3 to 5°C. At the end of the month in the Southern Federal District, the air heated almost to + 40°C, in many places across the European territory were set the new daily temperature highs. Nevertheless, the cold start of the month affected the average temperature value. Almost everywhere, it was close to normal or slightly above it.
Quite a different picture was formed in the Urals. In Siberia and in the north of the Far East, almost the whole month was abnormally hot. New highs were repeatedly recorded in Evenkia, Turukhansk region, Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous District, Omsk, Tomsk and Novosibirsk region, in Kolyma and Chukotka. As a result, there the monthly average temperature exceeded the norm by 3-8°C. Past June was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations in the north of the Far Eastern Federal District, and after June 2012 it was the second warmest in the Siberian Federal District. In the south of the Far East air temperature mainly corresponded to normal.
On the whole territory of the Russian Federation, the average temperature in June was the same as last year, it took the 2-3rd place, conceded only to the record warm for the country by June 2012.
Warmer than the norm, the last June was in East Asia. In China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan the norm was exceeded by about 1-3°C, in some places in the west of China - by 3-5°C.
Around the norm or slightly higher temperature background appeared in Southeast Asia. In India after the April-May premonsoon heat, temperature in June turned colder than usual. In the central and southern areas of the country's average monthly air temperature was below normal.
In Central Asia and Middle East, as it should be this time of year, reigned heat. In the Central Asian republics, Iran and the Arabian Peninsula, average monthly temperature was above the norm by 1-3°C. A similar pattern was mentioned in the east of North Africa in Egypt, so as in Libya, Tunisia and Algeria.
Temperatures were higher than normal in Europe, particularly in the eastern part. In Austria, the Balkan countries, Moldova, Ukraine and Belarus monthly temperature were higher that the norm by 2-3°C. In many places on the territory of these countries were recorded new temperature highs, not only per diem, but also monthly. At the same time, the temperature background in Western Europe was close to normal or slightly above it.
North America this year got a very hot early summer. In many parts of Canada and the United States, the average temperature in June exceeded the norm by 2-5°C. However, it mainly refers to the western territories of these countries, while in the east the temperature conditions were close to normal or even colder than it. The latter mainly refers to the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland, where negative anomalies reached -1.0 ... -2.5°C. In Montreal, the average monthly air temperature anomaly was + 2.4°C, Kansas - + 3.1°C, Toronto - + 3.5°C, Las Vegas - + 4.8°C, Salt Lake City - + 5.0°C. In the US last June was the warmest in the history of the country; in Canada - has entered the top three warmest in the history of meteorological observations, i.e., since 1891.
In the Arctic, the mean temperature for the month repeated a record achievement established in 2012. Around the Polar Regions, the temperature was above normal. In Yamal, Taimyr and Chukotka - by 4-6°C, in Alaska and Polar Canada - by 2-3°C. The rate of ice melting in the Arctic was unprecedented. There are opinions that in this decade it will almost be free from ice. The last time on Earth, it happened about 100-120 thousand years ago.
In the Northern Hemisphere last June was one of the warmest in history. With an accuracy of 0.1°C, it repeated the record achievement of the last year. The first half of 2016was the warmest in history. The same rank for the half year were in Russia, the Arctic, India and the US Arctic Alaska. In North Africa, Europe, USA, Canada the average temperature was at the 2-3rd rank among the warmest in the past six months. In Russia the same record was at the North-West, the South, the Crimea, the Volga and Ural Federal Districts. In Siberia, the last six months have become the warmest in history.
In Moscow, the average June temperature was 18.2°C, anomaly of + 1.6°C.
The temperature of the ocean surface
In the Pacific Ocean, the neutral phase of the Southern Oscillation is getting stronger. Along the equator, there were negative anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST). In the tropical latitudes in both the east and the west of large positive SST were formed anomalies. Especially large anomalies (up to + 2°C or more) took place along the coast of North America, as well as in the Bering and Okhotsk seas part. At the same time in the temperate latitudes of the central part of the ocean, there were negative SST anomalies. Despite the fact that El Niño was completed, the average temperature of the surface of the Pacific
Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere still held at the level of extreme values.
In the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean for a long time formed the negative SST anomalies, and even further to the north: in the Davis and the Danish Straits, as well as in the Barents Sea were positive anomalies, sometimes reaching 2°C or more.
In June at the European part of Russia rains seized , mainly north and south , leaving a central region with the little rainfall , the amount of which in some places has not held up to half of the monthly norm. At the beginning of the month in the north the rains have been accompanied by the snowfall. Sometimes the rains were very strong. At the beginning of the month some places of Krasnodar, the Black Sea coast and the North Ossetia had the monthly or even six weeks precipitation within 12-24 hours. Heavy rains, accompanied by hail, raised the level of mountain rivers by two meters. At the end of the month the weather struck the same region again plus the Rostov region. There were flooded roads аnd destruction, again. At the same time, heavy rains swept through the north- west part of the country. The Pskov region had the monthly rainfall per day. Ural this month was marked by a lot of rainfall. In some places standards are exceeded in 1.5-2.0 times or more. And to the East – in Siberia it was quite dry. Precipitation totals for the month amounted to 20-30 % of the norm. The exception to this rule is the area of the Baikal lake, where, for example, in Chita fell more than the monthly norm of precipitation per day. There were not much rains in the northern areas of the Russian Far East, while in the south of Khabarovsk Territory, the Amur region, and in Primorye they have accumulated over the last month in the rate, and in some places – one and a half or two. Heavy monsoon rains have covered China. At the beginning of the month rain floods hit the provinces of Jiangsu, Hubei and Guizhou. It was reported about the losses of life and damage to agricultural crops at several thousands of hectares. At the end of the month the floods hit the south of the country (Hubei, Sichuan, Guizhou, Jiangxi , Yunnan , Zhejiang and Anhui provinces). A half of a million people had to be evacuated. In many regions of the country the monthly norm of precipitation was exceeded into 2.0-2.5 times. The same words can be attributed to Mongolia. But Korea in June was not affected by the monsoon at all. Precipitation here was not high, just like in most parts of Japan. Heavy rains and floods raged the south-east Asia. In many areas, precipitation exceeded the norm by 2-3 times. In June, the monsoon continued his attack on the Indian subcontinent. The rains continuously went to the south of the country. Here, precipitation exceeded the norm by 2-3 times. In the second half of the month monsoon reached the northern regions of India and came to Pakistan. Heavy rains quickly led to the accumulation of moisture in 2-4 times above normal. It has been reported that they have killed hundreds of people.
It was a lot of rain in Central Asia. The norms were exceeded throughout the region, very often by 3-4 times.
The weather was dry in the Middle East. Only in the South Caucasus torrential rains caused debris flows in Azerbaijan, which led to the destruction and damage in the countryside. In Georgia, the rains accompanied by hail damaged vineyards.
Central and Southeastern Europe got the norm of precipitation and more. In some places in Germany and the Balkans, norms were exceeded by 2 times. In the beginning of the month, prolonged rains hit the capital of France and the German state of Bavaria. In Paris, Seine river burst its banks, there level rose by almost 6 meters. Partially it flooded the Louvre and metro. In the east of the continent (Ukraine and Belarus) and the West (Spain and Portugal) was dry.
Although at much of the United States were accumulated normal precipitation, there were regions where dropped too much. Showers in a number of areas of Texas brought there up to two monthly norms of precipitation and more. It was reported that river levels have risen above historical highs. Even more was flooding in the eastern United States in the 20th of the month, it was reported that they became the strongest in the last 100 years. In West Virginia, the monthly norm of precipitation were exceeded 2.0-2.5 times. Around these days because of the rains, rivers in British Columbia were overflowed. According to local meteorologists, such showers were not seen for 90 years. In general, most of Canada's monthly total precipitation was approximately normal. Only to the west and northwest of the country there were a few more than the norm.
In Moscow, the amount of precipitation in June was at the level of 62mm. This was about 80% of the norm. For the first six months, rainfall in the capital accumulated exactly half of the annual rate.