The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in April 2016
In the European part of Russia most of the month dominated abnormally warm weather. Daily temperature highs were recorded in the west (Kaliningrad and Pskov region.), in the central region (Smolensk and Bryansk region.), in the Volga region and the Crimea. In Simferopol, the thermometer closely approached to + 30ºC. Records of maximum temperatures in the Russian North has become a habit already. In the North-West Federal District, last April was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations, and in the Crimea - the third warmest. Yet April is only the middle of the spring, so there is no wonder that the cold weather came here in the third decade. In the central, western and southern regions, the average temperature for the third decade was lower than the norm. In the south, in the Krasnodar region and the North Caucasus republics night frosts reached -3ºC. Anomalies of average monthly air temperature in the European Russia totaled over + 2-4ºC.
Much stronger they appeared in the Urals - + 4-8ºC. Here the whole month was abnormally warm. Air temperature for the month exceeded norms by 8-11ºC. April 2016 in the Urals Federal District was the third warmest since 1891.
Further to the east: in Siberia, Yakutia and the Far East was also significantly warmer than usual. In the Altai and Novosibirsk region, air was heated up to + 30ºC. In Yakutia and Taimyr were recorded new highs for daily maximum air temperatures. On average over the last month here as well as in the European Russia, the temperature was above the norm by 2-4ºC. However, Chukotka and Yakutia were dominated by winter - cold kept at -20 ... -30ºC.
With the exception of the extreme south of Kamchatka and the Kuril islands, in Russia throughout the April the norm of temperature have been exceeded. The last April in Russia became the third warmest in meteorological annals. Its average temperature concedes only to the same values in 1997 and 2007. The first four months of 2016 are the warmest in the history since 1891.
Abnormally warm appeared the rest of Asia to the south of Russia. In China, April was the second warmest in history after observations (after the year of 1998). Here, as well as in neighboring Korea, Japan and Mongolia, April temperatures exceeded the norm by 2-4ºC.
About the same anomalies were in the countries of southeast Asia. In the continental regions of Thailand, air was heated to + 40ºC and more. Local weather service reported that in there was not such heat in April since the beginning of meteorological observations, ie, over the past 65 years. In Thailand, Laos, Cambodia were established the new absolute temperature maximums for April. In Myanmar, the thermometer rose above + 45ºC.
Heat prevailed in April in India. The average temperature of the month got the second rank among the highest (after 2010). In the south of the country, the air was heated to +45 ... 48ºC. The population was advised not to leave the house at midday, and still more than 100 people have died from the body overheating. Heat waves observed in the north of the country, but here because of the rains it was easier to bear. Usually it is so hot in India in anticipation of the summer monsoon - in May. Soon we will know does this mean that this time it will start earlier than usual or not.
In Central Asia, the Middle East, the air temperature also exceeded the norm. However, if in the past month temperature anomalies in Kazakhstan reached + 8-9ºC, this time the rank was only - 3-5ºC, which also can be considered as a significant excess. It was cold in Central Asia. In Kyrgyzstan, frosts to -2ºC partially damaged the flowering fruit trees.
Air temperature anomalies in the Middle East amounted + 2-4ºC. In Africa, it was about the same.
At the beginning of the month, Eastern Europe was already in the summer heat. In the Czech Republic and Poland, at the time the temperature reached + 22-24ºC. In Ukraine, Belarus and the Baltic States new records of maximum temperature have been established. The same was observed in the Balkans and in Italy, where the values were close to 30ºC. However, at the end of the month the cold hit Europe. In the Czech Republic and Poland, Greece and France in the early morning air cooled to -2 ... -3ºC. In Prague, where at the beginning of the month was recorded a maximum temperature, at the end was recorder the minimum. The last time such a low temperature at the end of April was observed 40 years ago. As a result, in the eastern and southeastern Europe April turned out to be warmer than normal by 2-4ºC, in Central Europe the rate was about the norm, and in the far west - in the UK - below it.
In most parts of the United States, the average temperature for the month was above normal. But if in the center and east of this excess was at the level of1-2ºC, in the west in the Pacific coast states it was 4-6ºC, and in Alaska - 8ºC, which made last April the warmest in history of the state. Some areas on the Pacific coast were also very warm or close to it. A more striking contrast between east and west took place in Canada. For example, in British Columbia and the Yukon temperature per month on average exceeded the norm by 2-4ºC, and in Quebec and in Newfoundland were just as below.
Another heat center covers the northeastern polar regions of Canada, where as well as in neighboring Greenland, was abnormally warm (by 4-6º above normal). In Greenland, the new absolute maximum temperature was recorded in April + 17.8ºC. While it was also abnormally warm in the eastern sector of the Arctic (Novaya Zemlya, Franz Josef Land, Yamal), the last April in the Arctic was the fourth among the warmest in the history of meteorological observations and the first 4 months of 2016. They have extremely high temperatures. The consequence of such a warm weather began to record the minimum area of the Arctic ice cap. Compared with the previous minimum set in 2015, it fell by another 20 thousand square km.
April 2016 was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations in the Northern Hemisphere. Thus, exactly for a year since May 2015 here were registered absolute maximum mean air temperature for each month in a row. Such had never happened in meteorological annals.
In Moscow, the average temperature in April was + 8.1ºC, anomaly - + 2.3ºC.
The temperature of the ocean surface
In the Pacific continued weakening of El Nino. The equatorial anomaly of the average ocean surface temperature (OST) everywhere was already below + 2°C, and off the coast of South America began forming negative OST anomalies. The average surface temperature anomaly in the Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere remained at the previous month's level. Large negative OST anomalies were formed in the central part of the ocean (more than 1°C), in the same region where negative air temperature anomalies. Along the Pacific coast of North America against the backdrop of large positive temperature anomalies occurred large positive OST anomalies.
The average surface temperature anomaly in the Atlantic Ocean in the northern hemisphere remained at the same level as in the last month. As before, there was a very high temperature of the water in the Gulf Stream, exceeding the norm by 2°C or more. Just as in the previous months, the entire northern part of the ocean from Greenland to Europe was captured by the negative OST anomalies greater than 1°C. The temperature of the surface of the Barents Sea was by 1-2°C above the norm. About the same anomalies were in the Mediterranean Sea, where in the eastern part of the resorts in the end of the month the water temperature reached + 20-22°C.
In most of European Russia, rainfall for the month amounted a norm or exceeded it. This was especially noticeable in excess of the Central Black Earth Region (Voronezh, Tambov, Lipetsk region) and in the Volga region - in 2-4 times. In some places there, the number of heavenly precipitated moisture has reached an absolute month high. The rains were very strong - 12 hours of their accumulated up to 30mm, a day - up to 40mm. It was sleet, in the west of European Russia in the Smolensk region even reestablished snow cover in the last decade of the month. Only in the South and parts of the North Caucasus Federal District was little precipitation - less than half of the monthly norm, which, however, does not apply to mountain areas, where their number largely made up the norm and more.
Rainfall was normal in the Urals. Abundant rains in Sverdlovsk and Chelyabinsk regions, as well as the rapid melting of snow caused here a flood, which was the strongest over the past 40 years. It was snowing in Yamal, as well as on the neighboring Taimyr, sometimes there was circling blizzard.
In Siberia, precipitation has also proved mostly near normal or more. In the Altai, in Tuva, Baikal, Novosibirsk and Kemerovo regions - more than two norms.
Southern areas of the Far East (Amur and Sakhalin regions, the Primorsky and Khabarovsk Territories South) in April got a norm of rainfall. At the same time, the northern areas (Kamchatka region, Magadan Region, Chukotka Autonomous District) received less precipitation. During past month there have accumulated less than half of the norm.
It was dry In Mongolia, while in neighboring China, Korea and Japan in April rains appeared in abundance. In some places, their sum exceeded the norm by 2-3 times. During the day, accumulated up to 50 mm of rain.
Though sometimes in South East Asia was strong rainfall intensity up to 25 mm/day, however as a whole the month was dry. In Vietnam, Cambodia, Malaysia, there are areas where rainfall was not at all. At the same time in Indonesia in Sumatra, downpours made two monthly norms.
It was very dry in India. Local meteorologists say that now in the country has been the driest period of the last four decades. In the northern and central parts of the country was virtually no rain, only in the south they had accumulated about 15-20mm, which is 20-30% of the norm. No precipitation in the west of Pakistan. Only in the north of the country have been heavy rains that caused flooding, numerous destruction and loss of life.
The same effects of the downpours were in neighboring Afghanistan. In this arid country received more than 100 mm rainfall, which sometimes exceeded the norm by 1.5-2.0 times. In Kazakhstan, other countries of Central Asia, rainfall was abundant and more in the west and north of the country and less the norm - in the east. In addition, little rain was in the neighboring Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and in the east of Uzbekistan.
It was dry weather in Iran, while there were heavy rains in some places in the Middle East.
It was dry in most parts of North Africa. Only to the north in the Western Mediterranean and in the south along the coast of the Gulf of Guinea were heavy rains. Precipitation exceeded the norm by 2-4 times in some places.
Southern Europe in April suffered from a deficiency of precipitation. In Italy, Greece and most of the Balkan countries over the last month did not reach even half the norm. To the north, west and east precipitation was much larger. In the Baltic countries and Ukraine in some places the monthly norm was exceeded by 2-4 times. A similar situation in the east of France and Spain. In late April, in Western Europe felt as if winter has returned. In Bavaria, the green grass and blooming trees lay sleet. In England and Scotland, have fallen snow and icy rain. The snow was so abundant, that, despite the positive air temperature, it did not have time to melt on the ground.
US territory with the exception of the eastern states was flooded with rains. The entire Middle East from the Canadian border to the Gulf of Mexico, and Texas got in 2-4 times more than the norm of rainfall. Rains have caused massive flooding in Texas, Mississippi and Louisiana in the south. In the states of Montana, Wyoming, North Dakota and South rainfall during this month reached its absolute maximum. In Mexico, a lot of rain fell on both coasts, it was dry in the center of the country. In Canada, rainfall mainly inherited the coastal and northern areas, while in the southern provinces they were a little.
In Moscow in the past month fell 34 mm rainfall, which was 77% of the norm.