The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2015
  Climate The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2015

The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in November 2015

Air temperature

In November, the average temperature in Russia was close to normal. However, it changes during the month were uneven. So if in the European territory on each decade the average temperature was above normal, after a large positive anomalies of the first decade in the Urals and Siberia (up to +5 ... + 7°C), in the second decade a strong cold snap occurred (anomalies to -4 ... -10°C), while in the third - here again it was warm (anomaly up to + 4 ... + 8°C), with the exception of Trans-Baikal, which still held the abnormal cold. In the Far East, the heat of the first decade gave way to the cold in second and third. Especially in the Kamchatka and Chukotka, where the average decade temperature was below the norm by 4-6°C. Strong warming took place in the European territory of Russia in the last week of the month. In the Black Earth, the Middle Volga and the Lower Volga were recorded daily maximum temperatures. In the south, in the Krasnodar and Stavropol Territories, Rostov Region the thermometer rose to summer values of +20 ... 25°C. At the same time, in Yakutia, Irkutsk Region and Trans-Baikal frosts reached -45°C, which is typical for the middle of winter, but not fall. During all month, the weather was very warm in the Russian North and the Arctic islands. As a result, the average temperature in November in the Russian sector of the Arctic exceeded the norm by 4-12°C. In the fight against heat and cold in the Southern Urals and southern Siberia and Kamchatka the cold won. Here, the average temperature for the month was less than the norm by 1-3°C.

 

 

Siberian frost backfired northeast China. There in some places the air in the middle of the month was colder than normal by 1-2°C. But on the biggest part of the country last November warmer than usual. As a rule, by 1-2°C and to the west in Xinjiang - by 2-4°C. Average temperature in the south of Korea and Japan was above the norm by 1-3°C.

Abnormally warm this month was in Southeast Asia. Average monthly temperature was above the norm by 2-3°C.

In Central Asia, the cold weather in the beginning of the month (the temperature anomalies in the first decade to -2 ... -3°C) gave way to warm in the south of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, on the rest of the territory it was close to normal.

The temperature was also close to normal in the Middle East. Only in Arabia and Yemen, it was warmer than usual by 1-2°C.

Particularly warm weather was recorded in Europe this month. It was the warmest November in the history of meteorological observations. The average temperature of the month on the continent was above the norm by 2.5°C. There were areas with the excess of 3-4°C - France, Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Bulgaria, and the countries of Scandinavia.

Also, it was very warm on the other side of the Atlantic. In Canada, in large parts of the country the norms of air temperature exceeded by 2°C, to the west and to the north - by +4 ... + 6°C. In the United States last November came was in the top five warmest in history. In the center and east of the country, it was warmer than usual on average by 2-4°C. In New York last November was the warmest since 1821, ie, in the history of meteorological observations in the city. The norm was recorded in the West of the United States and in some places on the Pacific coast and below. Sometimes arctic cold yet managed to break into the northern states of the country. And then the thermometer dropped sharply. Therefore, in the states of Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, at the beginning of the third decade they fell to -20°C. The temperature in Mexico was above the norm by 2-3°C.

There was still very warm in the Arctic. The average temperature in the region in November was 4.5°C above normal. Everywhere were positive anomalies. In the Russian sector - up to +8 ... +12°C, Canadian and Norwegian - +4 ... + 6°C. In Greenland, the temperature rise has led to a split in the continental ice sheet. Part of it broke away and became a huge ice island.

In Moscow, the average temperature for the month + 0.8°C, which is 2.0°C above normal.

November and the entire Fall 2015 in the Northern Hemisphere was the warmest in the history of regular meteorological observations on the planet.

Colder than normal during the last fall was the only part of the Asian territory of Russia - from the Urals to Lake Baikal, and in the northern Atlantic Ocean. In the rest of the hemisphere autumn was warmer than normal. This is especially evident in the Arctic, where in the area of Franz Josef Land and Severnaya Zemlya autumn temperature exceeded the norm by 5-7ºC or more. The average temperature in the Arctic is second after the record of 2012 and repeats the achievement established in 2010.

Noticeably warmer than usual autumn was in North America (by 2-4ºC). In the United States last autumn was the warmest in the history of meteorological observations. It was very warm in Scandinavia and the Middle East.

After the average temperature of the Northern Hemisphere reaches the absolute maximum in the seventh consecutive month (May-November), while the remaining four months (January-April) are in the top five warmest, we can confidently say that 2015 will be the warmest in the meteorological annals of Earth. The average temperature of eleven months 2015, by about 0.2ºC higher than the same value in 2014, which is known to be the warmest on the planet.


The temperature of the ocean surface

In the Pacific, continued strengthening of El Niño. The anomalies of sea surface temperature (SST) in the equatorial latitudes exceeded +3°C. The average value of the surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere the fourth consecutive month reached an absolute maximum. At almost all the waters from the equator to the Bering Sea monthly average SST was higher than normal, and only in the west of the temperate latitudes in Japan sea, partly in Okhotsk sea, and to the east of Japan in November were negative SST anomaly. Noticeably higher than normal water temperature was not only in equatorial latitudes and in the east of the ocean, but also in the west - in the South China Sea and the south of Japan.

The average value of surface temperature anomalies of the Atlantic Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere remained at the level of recent months - about 0.5°C. Still significantly above the normal was the temperature of the water in the Gulf Stream and the Gulf of Mexico (+ 1-2°C), and off the coast of Europe. Much of the water area of the ocean between Newfoundland and Greenland and further away to the east was occupied by the negative SST anomalies. In some places, the water temperature was below normal by 1°C or more.

Very warm water was observed in the resorts of the Eastern Mediterranean, where were recorded values of + 22-24°C that by 1-2°C higher than normal.

Precipitation

In most of the European Russia rainfall in November was in abundance. In four of the six federal districts, there were areas where the amount of rainfall for the month significantly exceeded the norm. In the North-West Federal District –  a Kaliningrad region; Central – Oryol, Bryansk, Voronezh, Kursk and Belgorod region; Volga – Ulyanovsk, Samara, Orenburg region and the Republic of Tatarstan; South – Rostov, Krasnodar Territory, the Republic of Kalmykia. Sometimes the rains were of very high intensity, especially in the south. For example, in Sochi it was 25 mm / h. During the day fell the amount of precipitation that was comparable with the new absolute maximum. However, there are regions deprived of precipitation at European Russia. Here are those where the amount of rainfall for the month was less than half the norm: Moscow, Yaroslavl, Ivanovo region, the Central Federal District and the Republic of Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkess Republic, the North Caucasus Federal District.

Norm of precipitation fell in the Urals. The vast territory of Siberia encompassed areas with both high rainfall (Altai and Buryatia 2 times exceeded normal), and the deficit rainfall - the south of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, Khakassia, Evenkia, Irkutsk region. Unexpectedly poor rainfall was in the Far East. There precipitations were usually less than the norm. The exception was the Amur region, which exceeded the monthly norm by 2-3 times. In the middle of the month a cyclone brought a huge amount of snow in Magadan, that for some time paralyzed the port.

China in November was occupied by rain and snow. From the Mongolian border to the South China Sea, and from the foothills of Tibet to the Yellow Sea in the past month accumulated precipitation for 2-4 norm. Heavy rains have caused floods in the rivers, which in Hunan recognized as the most powerful in 50 years. More than 250-thousand people were affected by the weather, dozens became its victims. While in the center and south of the country raged rains, in the north in Inner Mongolia and Hebei Province were heavy snowfall, which led to the collapse of the motorway to Beijing. Suddenly, early snow covered Great Wall of China. It was dry in the west of China in the provinces of Sichuan, Qinghai, Xinjiang and Tibet.
Mostly norm of precipitation went to the countries of Southeast Asia.

In India, came the dry season. This, however, does not apply to the southern regions of the country, where as a result of worsening the Intertropical Convergence Zone continued rains. In the state of Tamiland kept downpours, which according to the Indian Meteorological brought the greatest amount of rainfall in the history of meteorological observations in the state. For a month fell more than 1000mm of rain. The catastrophic situation was in the capital of the Chennai state. The level of water in the streets was 1.5 meters.

Central Asia from Kazakhstan to Afghanistan has received an unusually large rainfall. As in the previous month continued heavy rains. Overall total precipitation in November exceeded norm. In the central regions of Kazakhstan, in the north of Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan to the south and east of Afghanistan - in 2-4 times.

Middle East got a lot of rain. Earlier this month, Yemen fell under the blows of two tropical cyclones that for a few days have brought rain 3-4 times more than their average norm per year. At the same time, heavy rains fell on Jordan. Kuwait and Iraq suffered from them, in the latter was introduced a state of emergency. In mid-month rains hit on Saudi Arabia, and again on Iraq. Downpours often accompanied by hail, the size of hailstones, according to eyewitnesses, reached the diameter of a golf ball. Muddy streams of water, mixed with ice, brought down power poles. At the end of the month, showers have passed the west of the Persian Gulf. In Qatar, a day fell up to 100 mm of precipitation at a monthly rate of 14mm and annual 74mm. Nevertheless, not everywhere in the Middle East were a lot of rain. Markedly less than the norm they appeared in Turkey and the Eastern Mediterranean. However, here too there were some heavy rains, e.g., in Israel.
In Africa, showers from the Middle East occupied Egyptian resorts. In Hurghada, the amount of precipitation in the past month exceeded the norm in 1.5 times. Countries located in the north of the Gulf of Guinea got a lot of rain. There rainfall exceeded the norm approximately in 1.5 times.

In Europe, the Azores anticyclone, who disseminated this month its influence far to the east, provided the dry weather in the south and center of the continent. In Italy and Switzerland, there were areas where was not a trace of any rainfall in November. In France, Spain, Portugal, Greece, they usually turned out to be less than half the norm. But in the north of Germany, the Benelux countries, Scandinavia and throughout Eastern Europe the rainfall was close to norm or more. In some places in Germany, Romania, Belarus, Denmark, Norway, Finland exceeded norm in 1.5-2.5 times. Heavy rains have caused floods in the rivers.

In Canada and the United States were a lot in common in the distribution of precipitation in the past month. In the east and south, with the exception of New England in the United States and Southern Quebec in Canada, there were a lot of rain. Mostly norm was exceeded by 2-3 times. In the last days of the month, the US Midwest was covered with record snowfalls. From South Dakota to Ohio, land was covered with snow. In Colorado, its thickness reached 20 cm. In Chicago, the snowfall became the second strongest in November for all time meteorological observations. At the same time in the south, the rains caused flooding in Oklahoma, Kansas, and Texas. In the west of Canada and the United States was dry weather, the amount of precipitation in the past month in some places reached nearly half the norm.

In Moscow in the past month fell 41 mm of rainfall. This is 71% of the norm.

 
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