The key weather and climate features in the northern hemisphere in August 2015
For the largest part of the month cold weather dominated over the Russian North. From Arkhangelsk to Taimyr, every decade of the month was colder than the norm. During the last one, the cold intensified and expanded far to the south, and covered the southern regions of the European part of Russia and Volga Region. For the last time, new records of the temperature minimums were registered not only in the north, but also near with Lower Volga, the Urals and Central region. At night the thermometer fell below 0°C, in some places there were recorded the values for -2 ... -8°C. As a result of the cold - negative anomalies of mean monthly temperatures were mentioned in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Komi Republic, on the Upper Volga and the Urals.
In some areas it was colder than usual by 2°C or more. In the Urals last August was the coldest in the XXI century.In the rest of Russia the average monthly temperature was about the norm or a little bit higher. On ETR hot weather was advancing from the west. In Kaliningrad and Murmansk regions, the Republic of Karelia, Stavropol and Krasnodar regions were recorded new daily maximums. In the south, the air warms up to + 42°C, and the average temperature exceeded the norm by 2°C or more.
A similar pattern was observed in the south of Siberia and the Far East. Maximum temperature (in the Trans-Baikal up to + 39°C, in the Amur region up to + 33°C) was a common thing for that region. The average temperature for the month exceeded the norm by 2-3°C or more.
To the south of Lake Baikal, in Mongolia, the weather was very hot. The norm was exceeded there for even more - by 3-5°C. Further to the south, in China, temperature mostly consistent with the norm. In neighboring Japan in the first half of the month, was kept the abnormally hot weather that set here in July. The air heated up to + 37-39°C, which according to local media led to hospitalization of hundreds of people. For the second year in a row in Japan hot summer led to casualties. In the past year from overheating died more than 300 people and about fifty thousand was in the hospital.
Abnormally heatwave in August occupied the Middle East. In Beirut, the average rate of temperature was exceeded by 3.1°C, in Kuwait – by 3.3°C, in Baghdad - by 4.1°C, Mashhad (Iran) - by 2.9°C.
In the republics of Central Asia and Kazakhstan in certain regions, including the capital, were set new maximum temperatures. The average monthly anomalies as a rule were at the level of + 1-2°C.
In most of the African continent in the Northern Hemisphere temperature corresponded to normal. Only in Egypt, the air in the average for the month warmed by 2-3°C higher than usual, additionally, on the coast of Algeria a strong heat a strong heat was established. It is well known that hot summer in Egypt is the norm, but what happened in the north of the country in August this year can be called unprecedented. The air heated up to +50°C. Only in Cairo dozens of people became the victims of the such kind of weather.
In Central and Eastern Europe hottest records fell one by one in August. In Germany has been repeated quite new absolute maximum air temperature in the country that was established in July this year. The new absolute maximum was reached in Prague. In Austria, Germany, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Poland, Northern Italy, the thermometer rose to a level of +35 ... 39°C, in the Ukraine, Hungary and Belarus - +33 ... + 36°C, in the Baltic States - +30 ... + 33°C. In Germany, Austria, Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Serbia, Romania, Ukraine and Belarus, average monthly air temperature exceeded the norm by 4°C or more, in the rest of Central and Eastern Europe - by 2-3°C. Last August was the second warmest in the history of the continent after August 2003. However, it should be noted that those one was much hotter. In addition, this August became the second hottest in meteorological annals of Germany since 1901.
On the North American continent, the air temperature in August was close to normal. There were weak negative anomalies in the central states of the USA (anomaly in Oklahoma around -1°C) and weak positive - in the rest of the country and in Canada. Only in the states of the Pacific coast of the US air on average for the month warmed by 2°C above normal. The abnormally hot weather and lack of rain which were hold here for the summer had led to numerous fires, the number of which this year is greater than the median.
It was hotter than normal in August in northern Mexico and in eastern Canada in Newfoundland and Labrador. There anomalies were about + 2°C or more.
In Moscow, the average August temperature was + 17.6°C with the anomaly of + 1.2°C.
Summer 2015 in the northern hemisphere is the hottest in the entire 125-year history of regular meteorological observations on the planet.
On a significant area of the hemisphere, average temperature considerably exceeded the norm. This primarily refers to Europe, the Greater Middle East and Central Asia, Mexico, the western United States and Alaska. The summer there was warmer than normal by 2-3ºC or more. In Central Europe (Austria, Switzerland, Germany, France) this summer is in the top three of the hottest in the history of meteorological observations. Temperatures were significantly higher than normal in the western Atlantic over the Gulf Stream jet in the tropical latitudes of the Pacific Ocean, which is affected by the development of El Niño.
In Russia last summer was in the top ten warmest in the history of meteorological observations. The main contribution to the abnormally warm summer was made by Asian territory. To the east of the Urals throughout the summer the average temperature was above the norm: in most parts of Siberia by 2ºC, in the Baikal region by 3ºC or more. The summer was 2ºC warmer than usual in Chukotka. In the Siberian Federal District last summer was the third warmest in the history of meteorological observations, losing on this indicator only to 2001 and 2002 years.
However, in the European North of Russia summer was cold. Already in July, we noted early frosts. Last time summer was so cold here 20 years ago in 1996. Thus, this summer was the coldest in the XXI century.
Abnormally cold air dominated last summer over the northern waters of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. It was felt by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and parts of India and China.
The record high temperatures in the past winter, spring and summer, as well as increasingly strong El Niño, which is expected to last until the end of the year, and maybe further, allows to assume that 2015 will be a record warm year in the Northern Hemisphere.
The temperature of the ocean surface
The value of the average surface temperature of the Pacific Ocean (AST) in the Northern Hemisphere in July 2015 reached an absolute maximum (according to observations from 1957). It exceeds similar values achieved in 1998 and 2004. A large part of the tropical latitudes of the ocean is occupied by AST anomalies for more than 1°C, and at the equator, ie directly in the area of the El Niño - 2°C or more. It is predicted that the peak of the El Niño is still ahead. It is expected in the autumn or early winter. The current El Niño would be the strongest since 1997/1998. Thus, it might become the most powerful in the XXI century.
Large positive anomalies have also been recorded in a number of water areas in the temperate and high latitudes. Along the coast of China, and to the east of Japan negative AST anomalies reached 1°C.
In the northern part of the Atlantic Ocean between Canada and the United Kingdom, ie approximately at the same latitude as in the Pacific, there also was a vast area of abnormally cold water, in which the average temperature was below normal by about 1°C. However, a much larger part of the ocean AST was close to normal. Only in the area of the Gulf Stream and the Canary Current, as well as at the south-west coast of Greenland, it was more than the norm.
In most of the European Russia August proved to be dry. Almost everywhere the amount of precipitation in the past month was less than half the norm, and in the south there were areas where they did not exist at all. The situation is similar in general for this summer. Only in the North-West and North Volga federal districts, rainfalls were close to norm. Only in a few areas of European Russia, rainfall was up to normal, but there were not enough of them throughout the country. Among those who got the allotted amount of precipitation is Crimean Federal District. After several consecutive dry summers last summer in Crimea dawned wet, which made it possible to completely fill the reservoir with water and ensure Crimean residents with water.
Rainfall in August and in general for summer went to the territory located to the east of the Urals between 60º and 70º N. Here the rainfall was normal or more. In August Perm Territory and Sverdlovsk region; Tomsk Region and Krasnoyarsk Territory; Republic of Yakutia, Irkutsk Region and the Trans-Baikal Territory received 1.5-2.0 rainfall. At the end of the month, heavy rains that associated with the passage of typhoon "Goni" were held in Primorye. They have caused the rise of the level of rivers, roads were washed out and the buildings were destroyed. The city of Ussuriisk was hit especially hard; people here experienced the largest flood in 50 years.
In the neighboring areas of northern China and Mongolia it was dry. Whereas in the south of the Yellow River rains brought more precipitation.
Season of monsoon rains continued in southeast Asia. In general, the intensity was correct. However, there were areas where the rainfall was much more than laid. First of all, it was in Myanmar. Flooding caused by rains led to the deaths of more than 80 people, 330 thousand people became internally displaced, at all there were about 1 million people affected by the disaster.
The Indian monsoon this year is not very active. In the south and west of the country in August, rainfall was less than half the norm. The deficit was partially offset by the northeastern and eastern states. Here because of the heavy rains the river overflows its banks, there were mudflows and landslides. In Assam and neighboring states there were severe floods for the past 15 years. August rainfall norm was exceeded 1.5-2.0 times. While the monsoon in India this year started a few days earlier than usual, the amount of precipitation for June and August was less than normal. If in September the situation does not change, then for the second year in a row the summer monsoon season in India would end with a deficit of rainfall, which would inevitably affect the agricultural production of the country.
In most of Central Asia and Kazakhstan, the weather was dry. Only in the mountains there have been heavy rains, and norm of precipitation was exceeded 2-3 times.
It was dry in the Middle East, only in Turkey have there were a lot of rains that exceeded the norm throughout the country by 2-3 times.
The weather in the Central and Eastern Europe was both hot and dry. Everywhere the precipitation in the past month had not amount even half of the norm. Cyclones, who could not overcome the atmospheric block over Eastern Europe, poured on the west and southeast of the continent. In the Balkans, bordering with Turkey, norm of precipitation was exceeded 1.5-2.0 times, and in the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Spain - 2-3 times.
North Africa was hit by the same cyclones. In Algeria the norm was exceeded by 2-4 times., A lot of rainfall fell in August around almost the whole West Africa. In the Sahel region, precipitations exceeded the norm by 1.5-2.0 times.
Most of the US and Canada had sufficient rainfall. In some places, they exceeded the norm by 1.5-2.0 times. In the US, only the states of the Pacific coast level of precipitation was quite low. The situation is particularly severe in northern California where in August was not rainfall at all. It was snow in Canada. But not in the north where even in the summer it will not surprise for anyone: it happened in the south of the province of Alberta. Severe drought continued in Cuba. According to the weather service of the country, from January to August of this year there fell less than a half of the norm of precipitation.
In Moscow this month accumulated only 14 mm of rain, which is only 18% of normal. Last August was the third driest in the history of the capital. Only twice in 1897 and 1938, rainfall in August was even less. Then they scored less than 10mm. The second consecutive year in capital one of the summer months was extremely dry. This has never happened before. Last year, it was July, during which only 4 mm of precipitation fell. Abundant rainfall in the first half of last summer made up for the August drought and overall summer rainfall this year was approximately normal.